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Thus, increasing levels of self-fertilization lead to decreased likelihoods of the evolution of androdioecy.

The opposite is true for gynodioecy, wherein high levels of selfing would not compromise females because self-fertilizing hermaphrodites would still produce enough sperm (pollen) to allow effective outcrossing with females.

Additionally, we hypothesize that the development of mechanisms allowing reproductive assurance in species with a number of sexually differentiated traits is most likely to result in androdioecy rather than gynodioecy (mixtures of females and hermaphrodites), and that these species may be developmentally constrained to stay androdioecious rather than being capable of evolving into populations solely consisting of efficient, self-compatible hermaphrodites.

We conclude by suggesting several areas in need of further study to understand more completely the evolution and distribution of this interesting mating system in animals.

However, some of these species (for example, ) were later verified as being truly androdioecious (Rieseberg and others 1992).

Interestingly, the evolution of androdioecy or gynodioecy as the transitionary phase is not equally likely, in either evolutionary scenario (that is, dioecy to hermaphroditism or vice versa).

Because in most species, sperm (or pollen) is abundant relative to eggs (ovules), an all-male mutant has greater difficulty competing with hermaphrodites than an all-female mutant (Lloyd 1975; Charlesworth 1984; Pannell 2002; Wolf and Takebayashi 2004).

Although androdioecy is thought to be unlikely to evolve, there are a handful of cases in which androdioecy has been described.

The earliest species to be described as androdioecious were primarily plants.